Scientific journal papers


  • Behets, G.J., Mubiana, K.V., Lamberts, L., Finsterle, K., Traill, N., Blust, R. & D’Haese, P.C. 2020. Use of lanthanum for water treatment: A matter of concern? Chemosphere.239.
  • van Oosterhout, F., Waajen, G., Yasseri, S., Marinho, M.M., Noyma, N.P., Mucci, M., Douglas, G. and Lurling, M. 2020. Lanthanum in Water, Sediment, Macrophytes and chironomid larvae following application of Lanthanum modified bentonite to lake Rauwbraken (The Netherlands). Science of the Total Environment. 706.


  • Burford, M.A et al. 2019. Solutions for managing cyanobacterial blooms: A scientific summary for policymakers. pages 1-15. IOC/UNESCO, Paris (IOC/INF – 1382).
  • Behets, G.J., Mubiana, K.V., Lamberts, L., Finsterle, K., Traill, N., Blust, R. & D’Haese, P.C. 2020. Use of lanthanum for water treatment: A matter of concern? Chemosphere Volume 239, January 2020. In Press.
  • de Lucena-Silva, D., Molozzi, J., dos Santos Severiano, J., Becker, V.& de Lucena Barbosa, J.E. 2019. Removal efficiency of phosphorus, cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins by the “flock & sink” mitigation technique in semi-arid eutrophic waters. Water Research. 159. 262-273.
  • D’Haese, D.P., Douglas, G., Verhulst, A., Neven, E., Behets, G.J., Vervaet, B.A., Finsterle, K., Lurling, M., Spears, B. 2019. Chemosphere.  Human Health Risk associated with the management of phosphorus in freshwaters using lanthanum and aluminum. 220. pgs 286-299.
  • Zamparas, M., Kapsalis, V.C., Kanteraki, A.E., Vardoulakis, E., Kyriakopoulos, G.L., & Kalavrouziotis I.K. 2019. Novel composite materials as P-adsorption agents and their potential application as fertilizers, Global NEST Journal, 21(1), 48-57.


  • Bishop, W.M. & Richardson, R.J. 2018. Influence of Phoslock® on legacy phosphorus, nutrient ratios, and algal assemblage composition in hypereutrophic water resources. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 25: 4544.
  • Funes, A., Martínez, F.J., Álvarez-Manzaneda, I., Conde-Porcuna, J.M., de Vicente, J., Guerrero, F. and de Vicente, I. 2018. Determining major factors controlling phosphorus removal by promising adsorbents used for lake restoration: A linear mixed model approach. Water Research.
  • Kasprzyka, M., Obarska-Pempkowiaka, H., Masib, F. & Gajewskaa, M. 2018. Possibilities of Phoslock® application to remove phosphorus compounds from wastewater treated in hybrid wetlands. Ecological Engineering. 122. 84-90.


  • Bishop, W.M. & Willis, B.E. 2017. Comparison of water resource management programs: An algae action threshold level approach. Open Journal of Applied Sciences. 7 (2). 31-41.
  • Kasprzyk, M. & Gajewska, M. 2017. Preliminary results from application Phoslock to remove phosphorus compounds from wastewater. Journal of Ecological Engineering.  18 (4) 82-89.
  • Kurzbaum, E., Raizner, Y., Cohen, O., Rubinstein, G. & Bar Shalom, O. 2017. Lanthanum-modified bentonite: potential of efficient removal of phosphates from fishpond effluents. Environment Science and Pollution Research International. 24(17):15182-15186.
  • Lin, J., Zhong, Y., Fan, H., Song, C., Yu, C., Gao, Y., Xiong, X., Wu, C. & Liu, J. 2017. Chemical treatment of contaminated sediment for phosphorus control and subsequent effects on ammonia-oxidizing and ammonia-denitrifying microorganisms and on submerged macrophyte revegetation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 1007-1018.
  • Reitzel, K., Balslev, K.A. & Jensen, H.S. 2017. The influence of lake water alkalinity and humic substances on particle dispersion and lanthanum desorption from Phoslock. Water Research. In Press.>
  • Waajen, G., Pauwels, M. & Lurling, M. 2017. Effects of combined flocculant – Lanthanum modified bentonite treatment on aquatic macro invertebrate fauna. Water Research. In press.
  • Wang, Y., Ding, S., Wang, D., Sun, Q., Lin, J., Shi, L., Chen, M. and Zhang, C. 2017. Static layer: A key to immobilisation of phosphorus in sediments amended with lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock®). Chemical Engineering Journal. 325. 49-58.


  • Copetti, D., Finsterle, K., Marziali, L., Stefani, F., Gianni Tartari, G., Douglas, G., Reitzel, K., Spears, B., Winfield, I.J., Crosa, G., D’Haese, P., Yasseri, S. & Lürling, M. 2016. Eutrophication management in surface waters using lanthanum-modified bentonite: a review. Journal of Water Research. 97. 162-174.
  • Dithmer, L., Nielsen, U.G., Lürling, M., Spears, B.M., Yasseri, S., Lundberg, D., Moore, A., Jensen, N.D. & Reitzel, K. 2016. Responses in sediment phosphorus and lanthanum concentrations composition across 10 lakes following applications of lanthanum modified bentonite. Water Research. 97. 101-110.
  • Dithmer, L., Nielsen, U.G., Lundberg, D. & Reitzel, K. 2016. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on the efficiency of P sequestration by a lanthanum modified clay. Water Research. 97. 39-46.
  • Douglas, G.B., Hamilton, D.P, Robb, M.S., Pan, G., Spears, B.M & Lurling, M. 2016. Guiding principles for the development and application of solid-state phosphorus adsorbents for freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic Ecology. 1-21. 10.1007/s10452-016-9575-2
  • Douglas, G.B., Lurling, M & Spears, B.M. 2016. Assessment of changes in potential nutrient limitation in an impounded river after application of lanthanum-modified bentonite. Water Research. 97. 47-54. 10.1016/j.watres.2016.02.005
  • Epe, T.S., Finsterle, K., Yasseri, S. 2016. Nine years of phosphorus management with lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock) in a eutrophic, shallow swimming lake in Germany. Lake Reservoir Management. 00:1–11.
  • Kurzbaum, E. & Shalom, O.B. 2016. The potential of phosphate removal from dairy wastewater and municipal wastewater effluents using a lanthanum-modified bentonite. Applied Clay Science. 123. 182-186. 10.1016/j.clay.2016.01.038
  • Lang, P., Meis, S., Procházková, L., Carvalho, L.,Mackay, E.B., Woods, H.J., Pottie, J., Milne, I., Taylor, C., Maberly, S.C. & Spears, B.M. 2016. Phytoplankton community responses in a shallow lake following lanthanum-bentonite application. Water Research. 55-68.
  • Nürnberg, G.K. & LaZerte, B.D. 2016. Trophic state decrease after lanthanum-modified bentonite (Phoslock) application to a hyper-eutrophic polymictic urban lake frequented by Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Lake and Reservoir Management. 32(1), 74-88.
  • Schindler, D.W., Carpenter, S.R., Chapra, S.C., Hecky, R.E. & Orihel, D.M. 2016.  Reducing phosphorus to curb lake eutrophication is a success. Environmental Science and Technology. 50(17). 8923-8929.
  • Spears, B.M., Mackay, E.B., Yasseri, S.,  Gunn, I.D.M., Waters, K.E., Andrews, C., Cole, S., de Ville, M., Kelly, A., Meis, S., Moore, A.L., Nürnberg, G.K., van Oosterhout, F., Pitt, J., Madgwick, G., Woods, H.J. & Lürling, M. 2016. A meta-analysis of water quality and aquatic macrophyte responses in 18 lakes treated with lanthanum modified bentonite (PHOSLOCK®). Water Research. 97.111-121.
  • Waajen, G., van Oosterhout, F., Douglas, G. & Lürling, M. 2016. Management of eutrophication in Lake De Kuil (The Netherlands) using combined flocculant Lanthanum modified bentonite treatment. Water Research. 97.83-95.
  • Waajen, G., van Oosterhout, F., Douglas, G. & Lurling, M. 2016. Geo-engineering experiments in two urban ponds to control eutrophication. Water Research. 97. pg 69-82.
  • Yasseri, S. & Epe, T.S. 2016. Analysis of the La:P ratio in lake sediments – Vertical and spatial distribution assessed by a multiple-core survey. Water Research. 97. 96-100.
  • Yin,H., Kong, M., Han, M. & Fan, C. 2016. Influence of sediment resuspension on the efficacy of geoengineering materials in the control of internal phosphorous loading from shallow eutrophic lakes. Environmental Pollution. 1-12.


  • Dithmer, L., Lipton, A.S., Reitzel, K., Warner, T.E., Lundberg, D. & Nielsen, U. 2015. Characterization of phosphate sequestration by a lanthanum modified bentonite clay: A solid-state NMR, EXAFS and PXRD study” Environmental Science and Technology. 49 (7), 4559–4566.
  • Lin, J., Qiu, P., Yan, X., Xiong, X., Jing, L. & Wu, C. 2015. Effectiveness and Mode of Action of Calcium Nitrate and Phoslock® in Phosphorus Control in Contaminated Sediment, a Microcosm Study. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 226-330.
  • Seger, A., Dorantes-Aranda, J.J., Muller, M.N., Body, A., Peristy, A., Place, A.R., Park, T.G. & Hallegraeff, G. 2015. Mitigating Fish-Killing Prymnesium parvum Algal Blooms in Aquaculture Ponds with Clay: The Importance of pH and Clay Type. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 3(2), 154-174.
  • Tekile, A., Kim,I & Kim, J. 2015. Mini-review on river eutrophication and bottom improvement techniques, with special emphasis on the Nakdong River. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 30, 113-121.
  • Wei, X. & Lu, S. 2015. Effects of inactivation agents and temperature on phosphorus release from sediment in Dianchi Lake, China. Environmental Earth Sciences. 74. 3857–3865. 10.1007/s12665-014-3910-5

Yamada-Ferraza, T.M., Sueitt, A.P.E., Oliveira, A.F., Botta, C.M.R., Pedro S. Fadini, P.S., Nascimento, M.R.L, Faria, B.M. & Mozeto, A.A. 2015. Assessment of Phoslock application in a tropical eutrophic reservoir: An integrated evaluation from laboratory to field experiments. Environmental Technology & Innovation. 4, 194-205.